No. 1 (2023)

The Significance of Boredom: A Literature Review

Published 2023-01-01


  • boredom,
  • boredom studies,
  • emotions,
  • significance of boredom,
  • function of boredom,
  • interdisciplinary
  • ...More

How to Cite

Finkielsztein, M. . (2023). The Significance of Boredom: A Literature Review. Journal of Boredom Studies, (1). Retrieved from


The paper aims at providing concise but thorough presentation of the state of art in the emerging field of boredom studies evidencing boredom significance to provide researchers from various disciplines with argumentation that boredom constitutes a worth researching phenomenon. The premise of the boredom significance is to be expounded by documenting its widespread, social consequences, functions and positive outcomes. Boredom has been found prevalent irrespectively of age, gender, culture or social class. It affects all main spheres of human life – work, leisure, education, romantic relationships,  and even religious life. It has also been evidenced that boredom has many significant consequences. It has been associated with, among others, risk-taking behaviours, overeating, impulse shopping, or (self-)destructive and violent behaviours. Yet, boredom may serve numerous significant functions as well. As an emotion, it is important for cognition, motivation and communication and has  had evolutionary meaning for human beings. In nowadays society, it serves as a defensive mechanism against overload of stimuli, but somehow to the contrary is also found to be a basic mechanism animating current consumerism. Boredom is also conceived to be a catalyst for reflection, self-cognition, creativity, and as a consequence a rudimental element of culture production and its advances.


  1. Abramson, E., and Stinson., S. (1977). Boredom and Eating in Obese and Non-Obese Individuals. Addictive Behaviours, 2(4), 181–185.
  2. Adorno, T. (2001). Free Time. In The Culture Industry. Selected Essays on Mass Culture (pp. 187–197). Routledge.
  3. Adorno, T. (2006). Minima Moralia: Reflections on a Damaged Life. Verso.
  4. Aho, K. (2007). Simmel on Acceleration, Boredom, and Extreme Aesthesia. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 37(4), 447–462.
  5. Anderson, B. (2015). Boredom, Excitement and Other Security Affects. Dialogues in Human Geography, 5(3), 271–274.
  6. Arnett, J. (1990). Drunk Driving, Sensation Seeking, and Egocentrism among Adolescents. Personality and Individual Differences, 11, 541–546.
  7. Asimov, I. (1964). Visit to the World’s Fair of 2014. The New York Times. Retrieved from
  8. Avramenko, R. (2004). Bedeviled by Boredom: A Voegelinian Reading of Dostoevsky’s Possessed. Humanitas, 17(1–2), 108–139.
  9. Baker, P. (1992). Bored and Busy: Sociology of Knowledge of Clerical Workers. Sociological Perspectives, 35(3), 489–503.
  10. Baker, R., D’Mello, S., Rodrigo, M. M., and Graesser, A. (2010). Better to Be Frustrated than Bored: The Incidence, Persistence, and Impact of Learners’ Cognitive-Affective States During Interactions with Three Different Computer-Based Learning Environments. International Journal of Human Computer Studies, 68(4), 223–241.
  11. Barbalet, J. (1999). Boredom and Social Meaning. The British Journal of Sociology, 50(4), 631–646.
  12. Bargdill, R. (2014). Toward a Theory of Habitual Boredom. Janus Head, 13(2), 93–111.
  13. Bartone, P. (2005). The Need for Positive Meaning in Military Operations: Reflections on Abu Ghraib. Military Psychology, 17(4), 315–324.
  14. Bauman, Z. (2007). Consuming Life. Polity Press.
  15. Beckelman, L. (1995). Boredom. Crestwood House.
  16. Belton, T., and Priyadharshini, E. (2007). Boredom and Schooling: A Cross-Disciplinary Exploration. Cambridge Journal of Education, 37(4), 579–595.
  17. Bench, S., and Lench, H. (2013). On the Function of Boredom. Behavioral Sciences, 3(3), 459–472.
  18. Bengtsson, T. (2012). Boredom and Action--Experiences from Youth Confinement. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 41(5), 526–553.
  19. Benjamin, W. (2002). The Arcades Project. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
  20. Bergler, E. (1945). On the Disease-Entity Boredom (“Alysosis”) and Its Psychopathology. Psychiatric Quarterly, 19(1), 38–51.
  21. Berlyne, D. E. (1960). Conflict, Arousal and Curiosity. McGraw-Hill.
  22. Bernstein, H. (1975). Boredom and the Ready-Made Life. Social Research, 42(3), 512–537.
  23. Biceaga, V. (2006). Temporality and Boredom. Continental Philosophy Review, 39(2), 135–153.
  24. Binnema, D. (2004). Interrelations of Psychiatric Patient Experiences of Boredom and Mental Health. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 25(8), 833–842.
  25. Bizior-Dombrowska, M. (2016). Romantyczna nuda. Wielka nostalgia za niczym [Romantic Boredom. Great Nostalgia for Nothing]. Wydawnictwo Naukowe Uniwersytetu Mikołaja Kopernika.
  26. Blaszczynski, A., McConaghy, N., and Frankova, A. (1990). Boredom Proneness in Pathological Gambling. Psychological Reports, 67(1), 35–42.
  27. Bornstein, R. (1989). Exposure and Affect: Overview and Metaanalysis of Research, 1968-1987. Psychological Bulletin, 102, 265–289.
  28. Bracke, P., Bruynooghe, K., and Verhaeghe, M. (2006). Boredom During Day Activity Programs in Rehabilitation Centers. Sociological Perspectives, 49(2), 191–215.
  29. Bracke, P., and Verhaeghe, M. (2010). Structural Determinants of Boredom Among the Clients of Psychosocial and Vocational Rehabilitation Centers. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 40(8), 1969–1998.
  30. Branković, S. (2015). Boredom, Dopamin, and the Thrill of Psychosis: Psychiatry in a New Key. Psychiatria Danubina, 27(2), 126–137.
  31. Brisset, D., and Snow, R. (1993). Boredom: Where the Future Isn’t. Symbolic Interaction, 16(3), 237–256.
  32. Britton, A., and Shipley, M. J. (2010). Bored to Death? International Journal of Epidemiology, 39(2), 370–371.
  33. Brodsky, J. (1995). In Praise of Boredom. In On Grief and Reason (pp. 104–113). Farrar Straus Giroux.
  34. Burn, C. (2017). Bestial Boredom: A Biological Perspective on Animal Boredom and Suggestions for Its Scientific Investigation. Animal Behaviour, 130, 141–151.
  35. Burton, R. (2009). The Anatomy of Melancholy. Ex-classics Project.
  36. Byron, G. (2006) Don Juan. In Selected Poems of Lord Byron (pp. 51–556). Wordsworth Poetry Library.
  37. Calhoun, C. (2011). Living with Boredom. Sophia, 50(2), 269–279.
  38. Campagne, D. (2012). When Therapists Run out of Steam: Professional Boredom or Burnout? Revista de Psicopatología y Psicología Clínica, 17(1), 75–85.
  39. Carroll, B., Parker, P., and Inkson, K. (2010). Evasion of Boredom: An Unexpected Spur to Leadership? Human Relations, 63(7), 1031–1049.
  40. Chan, K., and Loveridge, D. (1987). Refugees “in Transit”: Vietnamese in a Refugee Camp in Hong Kong. International Migration Review, 21(3), 745–759.
  41. Chaney, M., and Blalock, A. (2006). Boredom Proneness, Social Connectedness, and Sexual Addiction Among Men Who Have Sex with Male Internet Users. Journal of Addictions & Offender Counseling, 26(2), 111–122.
  42. Charlton, J., and Hertz, R. (1989). Guarding Against Boredom. Security Specialists in the U.S. Air Force. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 18(3), 299–326.
  43. Chin, A., Markey, A., Bhargava, S., Kassam, K., and Loewenstein, G. (2017). Emotion Bored in the USA: Experience Sampling and Boredom in Everyday Life. Emotion, 17(2), 359–368.
  44. Chylińska, M. (2016). O dwóch pojęciach nudy w kontekście rozważań nad tym, czy nuda jest twórcza [On Two Notions of Boredom in the Context of Considering Whether Boredom Is Creative]. Stan Rzeczy, 11(2), 139–148.
  45. Chylińska, M. (2017). Counterfactual Imagination as a Mental Tool for Innovation. AVANT, 8, 241–251.
  46. Cioran, E. (1995). Tears and Saints. The Univeristy of Chicago Press.
  47. Clark, C. (1994). Clinical Assessment of Adolescents Involved in Satanism. Adolescence, 29(114), 461–468.
  48. Clemons, S. (2013, August 20). We Were Bored... So We Decided to Kill Somebody. The Atlantic. Retrieved from
  49. Conrad, P. (1997). It’s Boring: Notes on the Meanings of Boredom in Everyday Life. Qualitative Sociology as Everyday Life, 20(4), 123–133.
  50. Corvinelli, A. (2007). An Emerging Theory of Boredom in Recovery for Adult Substance Users with HIV/AIDS Attending an Urban Day Treatment Program. Occupational Therapy in Mental Health, 23(2), 27–50.
  51. Crangle, S. (2008). The Time Being: On Woolf and Boredom. MFS Modern Fiction Studies, 54(2), 209–229.
  52. Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Beyond Boredom and Anxiety. Jossey-Bass Publishers.
  53. Csikszentmihalyi, M., and Larson, R. (1978). Intrinsic Rewards in School Crime. Crime & Delinquency, 24(3), 321–335.
  54. Czocher, A. (2018). Okupacyjna nuda w egodokumentach. Przykład Krakowa z lat 1939‒1945 [Occupational Boredom in Egodocuments. The Example of Krakow from 1939-1945]. Maska, 37(1), 129–140.
  55. Dahlen, E., Martin, R., Ragan, K., and Kuhlman, M. (2004). Boredom Proneness in Anger and Aggression: Effects of Impulsiveness and Sensation Seeking. Personality and Individual Differences, 37, 1615–1627.
  56. Dahlen, E., Martin, R., Ragan, K., and Kuhlman, M. (2005). Driving Anger, Sensation Seeking, Impulsiveness, and Boredom Proneness in the Prediction of Unsafe Driving. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 37(2), 341–348.
  57. Darden, D., and Marks, A. (1999). Boredom: A Socially Disvalued Emotion. Sociological Spectrum, 19(1), 13–37.
  58. Davies, H. (1926). Discussion on the Physical and Mental Effects of Fatigue in Modern Industry. The British Medical Journal, 2(3427), 472–479.
  59. Davies, J., and Fortney, M. (2012). The Menton Theory of Engagement and Boredom. First Annual Conference on Advances in Cognitive Systems, 131–143.
  60. de Chateaubriand, F.-R. (2010). René. Retrieved from
  61. de Chenne, T. (1998). Boredom as a Clinical Issue. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 25(1), 71–81.
  62. Development Dimensions International (2004). Faking It: An Examination of the Impacto of Values and Culture on Employee Attitudes to Work. Coach Matching. Retrieved from
  63. de Vries, M. F. R. K. (2015). Doing Nothing and Nothing to Do: The Hidden Value of Empty Time and Boredom. Organizational Dynamics, 44(3), 169–175.
  64. Drory, A. (1982). Individual Differences in Boredom Proneness and Task Effectiveness at Work. Personnel Psychology, 35(1), 141–152.
  65. Dyer-Smith, M., and Wesson, D. A. (1995). Boredom and Expert Error. In Contemporary Ergonomics (pp. 56–60). Taylor & Francis.
  66. Ejder, Ö. (2005). Spaces of Boredom: Imagination and the Ambivalence of Limits. Bilkent University.
  67. Ekman, P., and Davidson, R. (Eds.). (1994). The Nature of Emotion: Fundamental Questions. Oxford University Press.
  68. Elpidorou, A. (2015). The Quiet Alarm. Life Without Boredom Would Be a Nightmare. Aeon. Retrieved from
  69. Elpidorou, A. (2017a). The Bored Mind Is a Guiding Mind: Toward a Regulatory Theory of Boredom. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences, 17(3), 455–484.
  70. Elpidorou, A. (2017b). The Moral Dimensions of Boredom: A Call for Research. Review of General Psychology, 21(1), 30–48.
  71. Esman, A. (1979). Some Reflections on Boredom. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 27(2), 423–439.
  72. Fahlman, S., Mercer-Lynn, K., Flora, D., and Eastwood, J. (2013). Development and Validation of the Multidimensional State Boredom Scale. Assessment, 20(1), 68–85.
  73. Fahlman, S., Mercer, K., Gaskovski, P., Eastwood, A., and Eastwood, J. (2009). Does a Lack of Life Meaning Cause Boredom? Results from Psychometric, Longitudinal, and Experimental Analyses. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 28(3), 307–340.
  74. Farmer, R., and Sundberg, N. (1986). Boredom Proneness - The Development and Correlates of a New Scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 50(1), 4–17.
  75. Farnworth, L. (1998). Doing, Being, and Boredom. Journal of Occupational Science, 5(3), 140–146.
  76. Faulkner, R. (1973). Career Concerns and Mobility Motivations of Orchestra Musicians. The Sociological Quarterly, 14(Summer), 334–349.
  77. Ferrell, J. (2004). Boredom, Crime and Criminology. Theoretical Criminology, 8(3), 287–302.
  78. Finkielsztein, M. (2013). Nuda Na Zajęciach Uniwersyteckich. Percepcja Nudy Wśród Studentów Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego [Boredom During University Classes. The Perception of Boredom Among Students of the University of Warsaw]. MA Thesis, The University of Warsaw.
  79. Finkielsztein, M. (2016). Nuda a Wstręt. Przesyt, Ennui i Wstręt Do Życia [Boredom and Disgust. Satiety, Ennui and Disugst to Life]. Stan Rzeczy, 11(2), 61–73.
  80. Finkielsztein, M. (2021). Boredom and Academic Work. Routledge.
  81. Finkielsztein, M. (2022). Consumer Boredom: Boredom as a Subliminal Mood of Consumer Capitalism. European Journal of American Studies. [In Press]
  82. Fisher, C. (1987). Boredom: Construct, Causes and Consequences. Texas A&M University and Virginia Polytechnic Institute.
  83. Frederiksen, M. (2013). Young Men, Time, and Boredom in the Republic of Georgia. Temple University Press.
  84. Frederiksen, M. (2017). Joyful Pessimism: Marginality, Disengagement, and the Doing of Nothing. Focaal, 78, 9–22.
  85. Fromm, E. (1973). The Anatomy of Human Destructiveness. Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.
  86. Fromm, E. (1986). Affluence and Ennui in Our Society. In For the Love of Life (pp. 1–38). The Free Press.
  87. Fromm, E. (2011). The Pathology of Normalcy. Lantern Books.
  88. Fuller, C. (2011). Timepass and Boredom in Modern India. Anthropology of This Century. Retrieved from
  89. Gabelman, D. (2010). Bubbles, Butterflies and Bores: Play and Boredom in Don Juan. The Byron Journal, 38(2), 145–156.
  90. Gamsby, P. (2012). The Black Sun of Boredom: Henri Lefebvre and the Critique of Everyday Life. Laurentian University.
  91. Gardiner, M. (2012). Henri Lefebvre and the “Sociology of Boredom.” Theory, Culture & Society, 29(2), 37–62.
  92. Gardiner, M., and Haladyn, J. J. (Eds.). (2016). Boredom Studies Reader. Frameworks and perspectives. Routledge.
  93. Gasper, K., and Middlewood, B. (2014). Approaching Novel Thoughts: Understanding Why Elation and Boredom Promote Associative Thought More Than Distress and Relaxation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 52, 50–57.
  94. Gehring, V. (1997). Tedium Vitae: Or, My Life as a “Net Serf.” Ratio, 10(2), 124–140.
  95. Goetz, T., Frenzel, A., Hall, N., Nett, U., Pekrun, R., and Lipnevich, A. (2014). Types of Boredom: An Experience Sampling Approach. Motivation and Emotion, 38(3), 401–419.
  96. Goffman, E. (1961). Asylums: Essays on the Social Situation of Mental Patients and Other Inmates. Anchor Books.
  97. Goldberg, Y., Eastwood, J., Laguardia, J., and Danckert, J. (2011). Boredom: An Emotional Experience Distinct from Apathy, Anhedonia, or Depression. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 30(6), 647–666.
  98. Graeber, C. (1989). Long-Range Operations in the Glass Cockpit: Vigilance, Boredom and Sleepless Nights. In Vigilance and Performance in Automatized Systems (pp. 67–76). Kluwer Academic Publishers.
  99. Grazian, D. (2003). Blue Chicago: The Search for Authenticity. In Urban Blues Clubs. The Univeristy of Chicago Press.
  100. Grose, V. L. (1988). Coping With Boredom in the Cockpit Before It’s Too Late. Risk Management, 35(8), 30–35.
  101. Grubb, E. (1975). Assembly Line Boredom and Individual Differences in Recreation Participation. Journal of Leisure Research, 7, 256–269.
  102. Haga, S. (1984). An Experimental Study of Signal Vigilance Errors in Train Driving. Ergonomics, 27(7), 755–765.
  103. Haladyn, J. (2015). Boredom and Art: Passions of the Will to Boredom. Zero Books.
  104. Haller, M., Hadler, M., and Kaup, G. (2013). Leisure Time in Modern Societies: A New Source of Boredom and Stress? Social Indicators Research, 111(2), 403–434.
  105. Han, H. Ch. (2015). The Burnout Society. Stanford University Press.
  106. Hanby, M. (2004). The Culture of Death, the Ontology of Boredom, and the Resistance of Joy. Communio. International Catholic Review, 31(2), 181–199.
  107. Hancock, P. (2017). On Bored to Mars. The Journal of Astrosociology, 2, 103–120.
  108. Hancock, P., and Krueger, G. (2010). Hours of Boredom - Moments of Terror. Temporal Desynchrony in Military and Security Force Operations. Center for Technology and National Security Policy: Defense and Technology Paper.
  109. Harasymchuk, C., and Fehr, B. (2010). A Script Analysis of Relational Boredom: Causes, Feelings, and Coping Strategies. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 29(9), 988–1019.
  110. Harasymchuk, C., and Fehr, B. (2012). Development of a Prototype-Based Measure of Relational Boredom. Personal Relationships, 19(1), 162–181.
  111. Harasymchuk, C., and Fehr, B. (2013). A Prototype Analysis of Relational Boredom. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 30(5), 627–646.
  112. Harper, T. (1987). The Best Brightest, Bored and Burned Out. ABA Journal, 73(7), 28–31.
  113. Harris, J., and Segal, D. (1985). Observations from the Sinai: The Boredom Factor. Armed Forces & Society, 11(2), 235–248.
  114. Havermans, R., Vancleef, L., Kalamatianos, A., and Nederkoorn, C. (2015). Eating and Inflicting Pain out of Boredom. Appetite, 85, 52–57.
  115. Healy, S. D. (1984). Boredom, Self, and Culture. Fairleigh Dickenson University Press.
  116. Heidegger, M. (1995). The Fundamental Concepts of Metaphysics World, Finitude, Solitude. Indiana University Press.
  117. Helvétius, C. A. (1810). De L’Esprit; or, Essays on the Mind and Its Several Faculties. Albion Press.
  118. Heron, W. (1956). The Pathology of Boredom. Scientific American, 196(1), 52–57.
  119. Hill, A. B. (1975). Work Variety and Individual Differences in Occupational Boredom. Journal of Applied Psychology, 60(1), 128–131.
  120. Hill, A. B., and Perkins, R. E. (1985). Towards a Model of Boredom. British Journal of Psychology, 76, 235–240.
  121. Hoeyberghs, L., Verté, E., Verté, D., Schols, J., and de Witte, N. (2018). Hopelessness, Life Dissatisfaction and Boredom Among Older People. British Journal of Community Nursing, 23(8), 400–405.
  122. Homel, R., Tomsen, S., and Thommeny, J. (1992). Public Drinking and Violence: Not Just an Alcohol Problem. Journal of Drug Issues, 22(3), 679–697.
  123. Hsee, C., Yang, A., and Wang, L. (2010). Idleness Aversion and the Need for Justifiable Busyness. Psychological Science, 21(7), 926–930.
  124. Inge, W. (1940). Escape. In The Fall of the Idols (pp. 386–399). Putnam.
  125. Irvine, I. (2001). The Angel of Luxury and Sadness. Vol. 1: The Emergence of the Normative Ennui Cycle. BookSurge Publishing.
  126. Iso-Ahola, S., and Weissinger, E. (1990). Perceptions of Boredom in Leisure: Conceptualization, Reliability and Validity of the Leisure Boredom Scale. Journal of Leisure Research, 22(1), 1–17.
  127. Iso-Ahola, S., and Crowley, E. (1991). Adolescent Substance Abuse and Leisure Boredom. Journal of Leisure Research, 23(3), 260–271.
  128. Jablonka, E. (2013). Social Dimensions of Boredom in Classrooms from Germany, Hong Kong and the United States. Second Manchester Conference on Mathematics Education and Contemporary Theory, United Kingdom.
  129. Jackson, P. (1990). Life in Classrooms. Teachers College Press.
  130. Jahoda, M., Lazarsfeld, P., and Zeisel, H. (2009). Marienthal: The Sociography of an Unemployed Community. Transaction Publishers.
  131. Jawłowska, A. (1975). Drogi Kontrkultury [Roads of Counterculture]. Państwowy Instytut Wydawniczy.
  132. Jervis, L., Spicer, P., and Hanson, S. (2003). Boredom, “Trouble,” and the Realities of Postcolonial Reservation Life. Ethos, 31(1), 38–58.
  133. Johansson, G. (1989). Job Demands and Stress Reactions in Repetitive and Uneventful Monotony at Work. International Journal of Health Services, 19(2), 365–377.
  134. Johnsen, R. (2011). On Boredom: A Note on Experience Without Qualities. Ephemera, 11(4), 482–489.
  135. Johnsen, R. (2016). Boredom and Organization Studies. Organization Studies, 37(10), 1403–1415.
  136. ISSP Research Group (2009). International Social Survey Programme: Leisure Time and Sports - ISSP 2007. GESIS Data Archive, Cologne. ZA4850 Data file Version 2.0.0,
  137. Kass, S., Beede, K., and Vodanovich, S. (2010). Self-Report Measures of Distractibility as Correlates of Simulated Driving Performance. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 42(3), 874–880.
  138. Kass, S., Vodanovich, S., and Callender, A. (2001). State-Trait Boredom: Relationship to Absenteeism, Tenure, and Job Satisfaction. Journal of Business and Psychology, 16(2), 317–327.
  139. Kerce, E. (1985). Boredom at Work: Implications for the Design of Jobs with Variable Requirements. Navy Personnel Research and Development Center.
  140. Kierkegaard, S. (1843). Either/Or. Retrieved from
  141. Kirova, A. (2004). Lonely or Bored: Children’s Lived Experiences Reveal the Difference. Interchange, 35(2), 243–268.
  142. Klapp, O. (1986). Overload and Boredom. Essays on the Quality of Life in the Information Society. Greenwood Press.
  143. Koball, A., Meers, M., Storfer-Isser, A., Domoff, S., and Musher-Eizenman, D. (2012). Eating When Bored: Revision of the Emotional Eating Scale with a Focus on Boredom. Health Psychology, 31(4), 521–524.
  144. Kolakowski, L. (1999). On Boredom. In Freedom, Fame, Lying and Betrayal: Essays on Everyday Life (pp. 85–94). Penguin Books.
  145. Kolańczyk, A. (2011). Uwaga ekstensywna. Model ekstensywności vs. intensywności uwagi [Extensive Attention. Model of Extensiveness Attention vs. Intensiveness Attention]. Studia Psychologiczne, 49(3), 7–27.
  146. Korczak, J. (2003). Ghetto Diary. Yale University Press.
  147. Krotava, I., and Todman, M. (2014). Boredom Severity, Depression and Alcohol Consumption in Belarus. Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Science, 2(1), 73–83.
  148. Kuhn, R. (1976). The Demon of Noontide. Ennui in Western Literature. Princeton University Press.
  149. Kustermans, J., and Ringmar, E. (2011). Modernity, Boredom, and War: A Suggestive Essay. Review of International Studies, 37(4), 1775–1792.
  150. Langan-Fox, J., Sankey, M., and Canty, J. (2009). Human Factors Measurement for Future Air Traffic Control Systems. The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 51, 595–637.
  151. Larson, R., and Richards, M. (1991). Boredom in the Middle School Years: Blaming Schools versus Blaming Students. American Journal of Education, 99(4), 418–443.
  152. Laugesen, A. (2012). Boredom is the Enemy. The Intellectual and Imaginative Lives of Australian Soldiers in the Great War and Beyond. Routledge.
  153. Lee, T. W. (1986). Toward the Development and Calidation of a Measure of Job Boredom. Manhattan College Journal of Business, 15, 22–28.
  154. Lepenies, W. (1992). Melancholy and Society. Harvard University Press.
  155. LePera, N. (2011). Relationships Between Boredom Proneness, Mindfulness, Anxiety, Depression, and Substance Use. The New School Psychology Bulletin, 8(2), 15–25.
  156. Lewis, M., Haviland-Jones, J., and Feldman Barrett, L. (Eds.). (2008). Handbook of Emotions. The Guilford Press.
  157. Lin, Y., and Westgate, E. (2022). The Origins of Boredom. In The Oxford Handbook of Evolution and the Emotions. Oxford University Press. [In Press]
  158. Linton, R. (1936). The Study of Man: An Introduction. Appleton-Century-Crofts.
  159. Lomas, T. (2017). A Meditation on Boredom: Re-Appraising Its Value Through Introspective Phenomenology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 14(1), 1–22.
  160. Loukidou, E. (2008). Boredom in the Workplace: A Qualitative Study of Psychiatric Nurses in Greece. PhD Thesis, Loughborough University.
  161. Lyng, S. (Ed.). (2005). Edgework. The Sociology of Risk-Taking. Routledge.
  162. Macklem, G. (2015). Boredom in the Classroom. Addressing Student Motivation, Self-Regulation, and Engagement in Learning. Springer.
  163. Maeland, B., and Brunstad, P. O. (2009). Enduring Military Boredom. From 1750 to the Present. Palgrave Macmillan.
  164. Mains, D. (2007). Neoliberal Times: Progress, Boredom, and Shame Among Young Men in Urban Ethiopia. American Ethnologist, 34(4), 659–673.
  165. Malachowski, D. (2005). Wasted Time at Work Costing Companies Billions. Retrieved from
  166. Malamud, R. (2016, July 14). One Big Yawn? The Academics Bewitched by Boredom. Times Higher Education. Retrieved from
  167. Malkovsky, E., Merrifield, C., Goldberg, Y., and Danckert, J. (2012). Exploring the Relationship Between Boredom and Sustained Attention. Experimental Brain Research, 221(1), 59–67.
  168. Mallory, A. (2003). Burke, Boredom, and the Theater of Counterrevolution. PMLA, 118(2), 224–238.
  169. Mann, S. (1999). Hiding What We Feel, Faking What We Don’t: Understanding the Role of Your Emotions at Work. Element.
  170. Mann, S. (2007). The Boredom Boom. The Psychologist, 20(2), 2–5.
  171. Mann, S. (2012). Boredom at the Checkout Causes, Coping Strategies and Outcomes of Workplace Boredom in a Supermarket Setting. Journal of Business and Retail Management Research, 6(2), 1–15.
  172. Mann, S. (2016). The Upside of Downtime. Why Boredom is Good. Robinson.
  173. Mann, S., and Cadman, R. (2014). Does Being Bored Make Us More Creative? Creativity Research Journal, 26(2), 165–173.
  174. Markowski, M. P. (1999). L’Ennui. Ułamek historii [L’Ennui. A Piece of History]. In Nuda w kulturze [Boredom in Culture] (pp. 290–316). Rebis.
  175. Marshall, C, Roy, L., Becker, A., Nguyen, M., Barbic, S., Tjornstrand, C., Gewurtz, R., and Wickett, S. (2019). Boredom and Homelessness: A Scoping Review. Journal of Occupational Science, 27(1), 107–124.
  176. Martin, M., Sadlo, G., and Stew, G. (2006). The Phenomenon of Boredom. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3, 193–211.
  177. Martin, P. (2009). Sex, Drugs and Chocolate: The Science of Pleasure. Harper Collins.
  178. Marx, K. (1976). Capital: Volume 1. Penguin.
  179. Masquelier, A. (2013). Teatime: Boredom and the Temporalities of Young Men in Niger. Africa: Journal Fo the International African Institute, 83(3), 470–491.
  180. Masquelier, A. (2019). Fada: Boredom and Belonging in Niger. The University of Chicago Press.
  181. Maynard, L. A. (2002). The Profit of Idle Hours: Boredom in the Victorian Novel. University of South Carolina Press.
  182. McBain, W. (1970). Arousal, Monotony, and Accidents in Line Driving. Journal of Applied Psychology, 54(6), 509–519.
  183. Meighan, R. (1993). Socjologia Edukacji [A Sociology of Educating]. Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Mikołaja Kopernika.
  184. Mercer-Lynn, K., Flora, D., Fahlman, S., and Eastwood, J. (2011). The Measurement of Boredom: Differences Between Existing Self-Report Scales. Assessment, 20(5), 585–596.
  185. Mercer-Lynn, K., Hunter, J., and Eastwood, J. (2013). Is Trait Boredom Redundant? Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 32(8), 897–916.
  186. Mercer, K., and Eastwood, J. (2010). Is Boredom Associated with Problem Gambling Behaviour? It Depends on What You Mean by ‘Boredom.’ International Gambling Studies, 10(1), 91–104.
  187. Merrifield, C., and Danckert, J. (2014). Characterizing the Psychophysiological Signature of Boredom. Experimental Brain Research, 232(2), 481–491.
  188. Merton, R. (1968). Social Theory and Social Structure. The Free Press.
  189. Miller, W. I. (1997). The Anatomy of Disgust. Harvard University Press.
  190. Misek, R. (2010). Dead Time: Cinema, Heidegger, and Boredom. Continuum, 24(5), 777–785.
  191. Misztal, B. (2016). The Ambiguity of Everyday Experience: Between Normality and Boredom. Qualitative Sociology Review, 12(4), 100–119.
  192. Moran, J. (2003). Benjamin and Boredom. Critical Quaterly, 45, 168–181.
  193. Moravia, A. (1965). The Empty Canvas. Penguin Books.
  194. Morrant, J. C. A. (1984). Boredom in Psychiatric Practice. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 29(5), 431–434.
  195. Moynihan, A., van Tilburg, W., Igou, E., Wisman, A., Donnelly, A., and Mulcaire, J. (2015). Eaten up by Boredom: Consuming Food to Escape Awareness of the Bored Self. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 369.
  196. Musharbash, Y. (2007). Boredom, Time, and Modernity: An Example from Aboriginal Australia. American Anthropologist, 109(2), 307–317.
  197. Nederkoorn, C., Vancleef, L., Wilkenhöner, A., Claes, L., and Havermans, R. (2016). Self-Inflicted Pain out of Boredom. Psychiatry Research, 237, 127–132.
  198. Nesse, R. (1990). Evolutionary Explanations of Emotions. Human Nature, 1(3), 261–289.
  199. Nett, U., Goetz, T., and Hall, N. (2011). Coping with Boredom in School: An Experience Sampling Perspective. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 36(1), 49–59.
  200. Newberry, A., and Duncan, R. (2001). Roles of Boredom and Life Goals in Juvenile Delinquency. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 31, 527–541.
  201. Newell, S., Harries, P., and Ayers, S. (2012). Boredom Proneness in a Psychiatric Inpatient Population. The International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 58(5), 488–495.
  202. Newport, F. (Ed.). (2013). The Gallup Poll. Public Opinion 2013. Rowman & Littlefield.
  203. Ng, A., Liu, Y., Chen, J., and Eastwood, J. (2015). Culture and State Boredom: A Comparison Between European Canadians and Chinese. Personality and Individual Differences, 75, 13–18.
  204. Ngai, S. (2005). Ugly Feelings. Harvard University Press.
  205. Nichols, T., and Beynon, H. (1977). Living with Capitalism: Class Relations and the Modern Factory. Routledge & Kegan Paul.
  206. Nietzsche, F. (2001). The Gay Science. Cambridge University Press.
  207. Nisbet, R. (1983). Boredom. In Prejudices: A Philosophical Dictionary. Harvard University Press.
  208. O’Hanlon, J. (1981). Boredom: Practical Consequences and a Theory. Acta Psychologica, 49(1), 53–82.
  209. O’Neill, B. (2014). Cast Aside: Boredom, Downward Mobility, and Homelessness in Post-Communist Bucharest. Cultural Anthropology, 29(1), 8–31.
  210. O’Neill, B. (2017). The Space of Boredom. Homelessness in the Slowing Global Order. Duke University Press.
  211. Parasuraman, S., and Purohit, Y. (2000). Distress and Boredom Among Orchestra Musicians: The Two Faces of Stress. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 5(1), 74–83.
  212. Pascal, B. (1910). Thoughts, Letters and Minor Works. P. F. Collier & Son Corporation.
  213. Patterson, I., Pegg, S., and Dobson-Patterson, R. (2000). Exploring the Links between Leisure Boredom and Alcohol Use among Youth in Rural and Urban Areas of Australia. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 18(3), 53–75.
  214. Paulsen, R. (2015). Empty Labor: Indleness and Workplace Resistance. Cambridge University Press.
  215. Pease, A. (2012). Modernism, Feminism and the Culture of Boredom. Cambridge University Press.
  216. Peeren, E. (2019). You Must (Not) Be Bored! Boredom and Creativity in Global Capitalism. In Boredom, Shanzhai, and Digitisation in the TIme of Creative China (pp. 101–109). Amsterdam University Press.
  217. Pekrun, R., Goetz, T., Daniels, L., Stupnisky, R., and Perry, R. (2010). Boredom in Achievement Settings: Exploring Control–Value Antecedents and Performance Outcomes of a Neglected Emotion. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102(3), 531–549.
  218. Petry-Mroczkowska, J. (2004). Acedia – lenistwo [Acedia – Laziness]. In Siedem grzechów głównych dzisiaj [Seven Deadly Sins] (pp. 177–207). Znak.
  219. Phillips, A. (1993). On Being Bored. In On Kissing, Tickling, and Being Bored: Psychoanalytic Essays on the Unexamined Life (pp. 68–78). Harvard University Press.
  220. Phillips, S. (2016). Police Discretion and Boredom: What Officers Do When There Is Nothing to Do. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 45(5), 580–601.
  221. Raichle, M., Snyderm A. Z., Powers, W. J., Gusnard, D. A., and Shulman, G. L. (2001). A Default Mode of Brain Function. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 98(2), 676–682.
  222. Raposa, M. (1985). Boredom and the Religious Imagination. Journal of the American Academy of Religion, 53(1), 75–91.
  223. Raposa, M. (1999). Boredom and the Religious Imagination. University of Virginia Press.
  224. Reid, R., Garos, S., and Carpenter, B. (2011). Reliability, Validity, and Psychometric Development of the Hypersexual Behavior Inventory in an Outpatient Sample of Men. Sexual Addiction and Compulsivity, 18(1), 30–51.
  225. Rhodes, E. (2015). The Exciting Side of Boredom. Psychologist, 28(4), 278–281.
  226. Rhym, J. (2012). Towards a Phenomenology of Cinematic Mood: Boredom and the Affect of Time in Antonioni’s L’eclisse. New Literary History, 43, 477–501.
  227. Ros Velasco, J. (2017). Boredom: A Comprehensive Study of the State of Affairs. THÉMATA. Revista de Filosofía, 56, 171–198.
  228. Ros Velasco, J. (2022). Boredom in Pandemic Times: It Won’t Make Us More Creative (Unfortunately). Journal of Boredom Studies, 1.
  229. Rupp, D., and Vodanovich, S. (1997). The Role of Boredom Proneness in Self-Reported Anger and Aggression. Journal of Social Behavior & Personality, 12(4), 925–936.
  230. Russell, B. (1932). Boredom and Excitement. In The Conquest of Happiness (pp. 57–67). George Allen & Unwin LTD.
  231. Ryan, J. (2011). Beale Street Blues? Tourism, Musical Labor, and the Fetishization of Poverty in Blues Discourse. Ethnomusicology, 55(3), 473–503.
  232. Saint-Simon, D. de. (1902). Memoirs of the Duc de Saint-Simon on the Times of Louis XIV, and the Regency. Hardy, Pratt & Company.
  233. Sánchez-Vázquez, M. (2004). Scientific Indifference: Understanding Science in a Mexican Planetarium. PhD Thesis, University of Manchester.
  234. Sandywell, B. (2016). The Dialectic of Lassitude: A Reflexive Investigation. In Boredom Studies Reader (pp. 38–52). Routledge.
  235. Schaefer, C. (2003). Bored to Distraction: Cinema of Excess in End-of-TheCentury Mexico and Spain. State University of New York Press.
  236. Schielke, S. (2008). Boredom and Despair in Rural Egypt. Contemporary Islam, 2(3), 251–270.
  237. Schneider, G. (2012). The Thin Line between Boring and Interesting. Image & Narrative, 3. Retrieved from interesting-by-greice-schneider/
  238. Schopenhauer, A. (1969). The World as Will and Representation, vol. 1. Dover Publications.
  239. Schubert, D. (1977). Boredom as an Antagonist of Creativity. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 11(4), 233–240.
  240. Scitovsky, T. (1999). Boredom - An Overlooked Disease? Challenge, 42(5), 5–15.
  241. Shalev, S. (2008). A Sourcebook on Solitary Confinement. Retrieved from
  242. Shamir, B., and Drory, A. (1982). Occupational Tedium Among Prison Officers. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 9(1), 79–99.
  243. Sienkiewicz, B. (1999). Nuda i świadomość w powieści inteligenckiej [Boredom and Consciousness in the Intellectual Novel]. In Nuda w kulturze [Boredom in Culture] (pp. 142–173). Rebis.
  244. Simmel, G. (1950). The Metropolis and Mental Life. In The Sociology of Georg Simmel (pp. 409–424). The Free Press.
  245. Smith, R. (1981). Boredom: A Review. Human Factors, 23(3), 329–340.
  246. Śniedziewski, P. (2011). Melancholijne spojrzenie [Melancholic Look]. Universitas.
  247. Sontag, S. (1967). Against Interpretation. Dell Publishing.
  248. Spacks, P. M. (1995). Boredom: The Literary History of a State of Mind. The Chicago University Press.
  249. Spielberger, C. (Ed.). (2004). Boredom. In Encyclopedia of Applied Psychology, vol. 1 (pp. 289–295). Elsevier Academic Press.
  250. Stebbins, R. (1990). The Laugh-Makers. Stand-up Comedy as Art, Business, and Life-Style. McGill-Queen’s University Press.
  251. Stebbins, R. (2003). Boredom in Free Time. Lesiure Studies Association Newsletter, 64(2), 29–31.
  252. Steele, R., Henderson, P., Lennon, F., and Swinden, D. (2013). Boredom Among Psychiatric Inpatients: Does It Matter? Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 19(4), 259–267.
  253. Steiner, G. (1971). The Great Ennui. In In Bluebeard’s Castle: Some Notes Towards the Redefinition of Culture (pp. 1–26). Yale University Press.
  254. Stets, J., and Turner, J. (Eds.). (2006). Handbook of the Sociology of Emotions. Springer.
  255. Sundberg, N., Latkin, C., Farmer, R., and Saoud, J. (1991). Boredom in Young Adults: Gender and Cultural Comparisons. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 22(2), 209–223.
  256. Sundberg, R. I., and Bisno, H. (1983). Boredom at Life Transitions--Adolescence and Old Age. Western Psychological Association, San Francisco.
  257. Sundström, M., Hjelm-Lindholm, S., and Radon, A. (2019). Clicking the Boredom Away - Exploring Impulse Fashion Buying Behavior Online. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 47, 150–156.
  258. Svendsen, L. (2005). A Philosophy of Boredom. Reaktion Books.
  259. Svendsen, L. (2016). Boredom and the Meaning of Life. In Boredom Studies Reader (pp. 205–215). Routledge.
  260. Takeuchi, H., Taki, Y., Hashizume, H., Sassa, Y., Nagase, T., Nouchi, R., Kawashima, R. (2012). The Association between Resting Functional Connectivity and Creativity. Cerebral Cortex, 22(12), 2921–2929.
  261. Tardieu, É. (1913). L’Ennui. Étude psychologique [Boredom. Psychologic Study]. Libraire Félix Alcan.
  262. Tazbir, J. (1997). Pojęcie nudy było nieznane [The Concept of Boredom Was Unknown]. In Polska na zakrętach dziejów [Poland in the Twists of History] (pp. 189–198). Sic!
  263. Thackray, R. (1981). The Stress of Boredom and Monotony: A Consideration of the Evidence. Psychosomatic Medicine, 43(2), 165–176.
  264. Thompson, W. (2006). Effects of Shift Work and Sustained Operations: Operator Performance in Remotely PilotedAircraft (OP-REPAIR). Retrieved from
  265. Tochilnikova, E. (2020). Towards a General Theory of Boredom: A Case Study of Anglo and Russian Society. Routledge.
  266. Todman, M. (2003). Boredom and Psychotic Disorders: Cognitive and Motivational Issues. Psychiatry, 66(2), 146–167.
  267. Tolor, A. (1989). Boredom as Related to Alienation, Assertiveness, Internal-External Expectancy, and Sleep Patterns. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 45(2), 260–265.<260::AID-JCLP2270450213>3.0.CO;2-G
  268. Tolstoy, L. (1970). The Death of Ivan Ilyich. Signet Classics.
  269. Toohey, P. (1988). Some Ancient Notions of Boredom. Illinois Classical Studies, 13(1), 152–164.
  270. Toohey, P. (2011). Boredom: A Lively History. Yale University Press.
  271. Tournadre, J. (2020). Between Boredom, Protest, and Community: Ethnography of Young Activists in a South African Township. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 49(3), 1–27.
  272. Tsai, C.-J. (2016). Boredom at Work and Job Monotony: An Exploratory Case Study Within the Catering Sector. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 27(2), 207–236.
  273. Tunariu, A., and Reavey, P. (2003). Men in Love: Living with Sexual Boredom. Sexual and Relationship Therapy, 18(1), 63–94.
  274. Tymkiw, A. (2017). Emotions Involved in Shopping at the Airport. The Catalyst, 4(1), 5–17.
  275. Tze, V., Daniels, L., Klassen, R., and Li, J. (2013). Canadian and Chinese University Students’ Approaches to Coping with Academic Boredom. Learning and Individual Differences, 23(1), 32–43.
  276. Vaneigem, R. (1994). The Revolution of Everyday Life. Rebel Press.
  277. Van den Berg, M., and O’Neill, B. (2017). Introduction: Rethinking the Class Politics of Boredom. Focaal, 78, 1–8.
  278. Van Maanen, J. (1974). Working the Street: A Developmental View of Police Behavior. Retrieved from
  279. Van Tilburg, W., and Igou, E. (2011). On Boredom and Social Identity: A Pragmatic Meaning-Regulation Approach. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 37(12), 1679–1691.
  280. Van Tilburg, W., and Igou, E. (2012). On Boredom: Lack of Challenge and Meaning as Distinct Boredom Experiences. Motivation and Emotion, 36(2), 181–194.
  281. Van Tilburg, W., and Igou, E. (2017). Boredom Begs to Differ: Differentiation from Other Negative Emotions. Emotion, 17(2), 309–322.
  282. Van Tilburg, W., Igou, E., Maher, P., and Lennon, J. (2019). Various Forms of Existential Distress Are Associated with Aggressive Tendencies. Personality and Individual Differences, 144, 111–119.
  283. Veblen, T. (2007). The Theory of the Leisure Class. Oxford University Press.
  284. Vodanovich, S. (2003). Psychometric Measures of Boredom: A Review of the Literature. The Journal of Psychology, 137(6), 569–595.
  285. Vodanovich, S., Kass, S., Andrasik, F., Gerber, W.-D., Niederberger, U., and Breaux, C. (2011). Culture and Gender Differences in Boredom Proneness. North American Journal of Psychology, 13(2), 221–230.
  286. Vodanovich, S., and Watt, J. (1999). The Relationship Between Time Structure and Boredom Proneness: An Investigation Within Two Cultures. Journal of Social Psychology, 139(2), 143.
  287. Vodanovich, S., and Watt, J. (2016). Self-Report Measures of Boredom: An Updated Review of the Literature. The Journal of Psychology, 150(2), 196–228.
  288. Volante, W., Merz, M., Stowers, K., and Hancock, P. (2016). Sleep, Workload and Boredom: Subject Matter Expert Insights. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, 60(1), 1833–1837.
  289. Walker, D. (2009). Predicting Service Employee Incivility Toward Customers: The Roles of Employee Boredom, Emotional Exhaustion, and Organizational Identification. University of British Columbia Press.
  290. Wallace, D. F. (2011). The Pale King: An Unfinished Novel. Little, Brown.
  291. Wangh, M. (1979). Some Psychoanalytic Observations on Boredom. The International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 60(4), 515–527.
  292. Wagner, I., and Finkielsztein, M. (2021). Strategic Boredom: The Experience and Dynamics of Boredom in Refugee Camp. A Mediterranean Case. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 50(5), 649–682.
  293. Ware, L. (1986). Enchantment and Ennui: The Experiences of the Crew of the CSS Chattahoochee. The Georgia Historical Quarterly, 70(3), 409–432.
  294. Watt, J. D. (2002). Fighting More than Fires: Boredom Proneness, Workload Stress, and Underemployment among Urban Firefighters. Kansas State University Press.
  295. Watt, J., and Vodanovich, S. (1999). Boredom Proneness and Psychosocial Development. The Journal of Psychology, 133(3), 303–314.
  296. Wegner, L., Flisher, A., Muller, M., and Lombard, C. (2006). Leisure Boredom and Substance Use Among High School Students in South Africa. Journal of Leisure Research, 38(2), 249–266.
  297. Weinger, M. (1999). Vigilance, Boredom, and Sleepiness. Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing, 15, 549–552.
  298. Welsh, S. (1981). The Manufacture of Excitement in Police-Juvenile Encounters. British Journal of Criminology, 21(3), 257–267.
  299. Wemelsfelder, F. (1985). Animal Boredom: Is a Scientific Study of the Subjective Experiences of Animals Possible? In Advances in Animal Welfare Science 1984 (pp. 115–154). Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
  300. Wenzel, S. (1967). The Sin of Sloth: Acedia in Medieval Thought and Literature. The University of North Carolina Press.
  301. Wilson, T., Reinhard, D., Westgate, E., Gilbert, D., Ellerbeck, N., Hahn, C., Brown, C. L., and Shaked, A. (2014). Just Think: The Challenges of the Disengaged Mind. Science, 345(6192), 75–77.
  302. Zomorodi, M. (2017). Bored and Brilliant. How Time Spent Doing Nothing Changes Everything. Palgrave Macmillan.
  303. Zuckerman, M. (1979). Sensation Seeking. Beyond the Optimal Level of Arousal. Taylor & Francis Psychology Press.